If you are a member of CCGS you will receive a copy of our newsletter every meeting month similar to this one.
CRAVEN COUNTY GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
P.O. Box 1344, New Bern, NC 28563-1344
Dedicated to Fostering Interest in the
Upcoming Meetings: Tuesday, January 11 at 7:00 pm, LDS Church – Victor T. Jones, Jr. –
“Orphans & Scholars: Genealogical Records Relating to Children”
Tuesday, February 8 at 7:00 pm, LDS Church – Lynn Gorges –
“Signature Quilts & Their Role in Genealogy”
Pg # Table of Contents:
3 President’s Message – Lois Gregory
4 What’s New in the Kellenberger Room? – Victor T. Jones, Jr.
5 New Year’s Resolutions - Old Photos – Maureen A. Taylor
6 Acquiring Virginia Land by “Headright” – Charles A. Grymes
7 VA Notes on Headrights – Daphne Gentry & The Library of Virginia
8 Acts of Genealogical Kindness – Carolyn McCulley
8 Keys to Locating Your Overseas Ancestors’ Hometowns
9-10 It’s That Time of Year: Organize Your Research! – Carolyn L. Barkley
10 Using Reverse Genealogy to Overcome Brick Walls – Diane Haddad
11 Medley: News, Tips & Web Sites – Carolyn McCulley
12 Membership Application & Renewal Form
President – Lois Gregory Secretary – Robert Boyd
Vice President and Program Chair – Carolyn Smith Treasurer – Mack Ballard
Directors at Large: Barbara Kerr, Beryl Nulph, & Bob Gregory
Archivists: Margaret Baxter & Mac Bonnett Webmaster: Victor Horrell
We appreciate members contributing to KinTracks! Lois Gregory provided her President’s message on page 3, and she and Bob Gregory provided the interesting articles about Virginia Headrights on pages 6-7, and also were very involved in the article at the top of page 8. Victor Jones provided his popular article on page 4 about new acquisitions in the Kellenberger Room at our local library.
Members are urged to contribute stories of research experiences, “how to” advice, helpful online resources and websites discovered, a “Eureka!” moment, or any other items you think may be of genealogical or historical interest to our members. Please send these items via email to me at the address shown above, or mail them to me at 421 Boros Road, New Bern, N.C. 28560.
LDS Family History Center is currently undergoing a review of the days and hours it will be open.
At time of publication, those days and times were not available for this issue of KinTracks. The FHC phone number is 638-5341. Be sure to call ahead before you go, as staffing is by volunteers only.
Please note that the web sites listed in the newsletter are hyperlinked; however, on some computers, instead of just “Left Clicking” your mouse on the web site address, you will need to do both “Control (depress Ctrl key) and Left Click” on the internet address to open the web link.
(The Society’s seal on the cover page of KinTracks was designed by Robert DeWitt Hennon, Jr. – March 2002. Copyright protected)
[Graphic of President’s Gavel Removed]
January - February 2011
I hope all of you had a wonderful Christmas and Holiday Season. To those of you who could not attend our Christmas party in December, we missed you. It was a delightful evening and many thanks to Jerri Fiolek, Barbara Kerr, Rosa Johnson, and Bob Gregory for all they did to make this event so enjoyable.
Thank you to Jerri Fiolek on behalf of the board and the membership for her 4 years of service, one as Vice President and 3 as a member of the board. We will miss her at board meetings, but look forward to her continued participation as an active member of the society. Thank you also to all of the returning board members for their help this past year. We anticipate many good events and programs for 2011 and welcome Beryl Nulph as a new director.
With the start of the New Year, you will want to get back to that research you put aside during the holidays. What better way to be energized than to attend our first meeting, January 11, 7 PM at the LDS church. Victor Jones will be our speaker and his interesting topic is listed at the top of page 2 of this newsletter. In addition to speaking about genealogical research involving children, Victor also will provide us with information about coming attractions in the Kellenberger Room.
The board is also going to start the New Year with ideas to bring a new look to our website, a new logo, and more visibility for the society. If you would like to contribute to our “brainstorming” sessions, please let me know. The more ideas and input we have, the better.
We recently added 5 new members: Peggy Rodgers from New Bern, who we hope to see at our meetings and participating in our activities; and 4 new members who live outside of our area: Dan Daily, Ludlow, KY, Kevin Kendall, Tampa, FL, Jerry Lee, Greenville, NC, and Jim Muse, Arlington, VA. We welcome them and hope that they will not only find our KinTracks newsletter helpful, but also will find some other members who may be researching the same families and make contact with them. It is really exciting to find distant “cousins” and share information on family history.
An inquiry for local research assistance sent to our Society’s mailbox resulted in an interesting chain of events and a happy conclusion – see the article at the top of page 8.
Make a New Year’s resolution to put the 2nd Tuesday of each month on your calendar now and start with January 11th!
[Graphic of Bookshelves Removed]
by Victor T. Jones, Jr.
Local History and Genealogy Librarian
The following is a list of recent additions to the Kellenberger Room:
Brawley, Dorothy Perry, and Frank L. Perry. The Bolling, Gay, Gaston, Brawley Paper Trail: With Allied Families and Friends. Newport, TN: D.P. Brawley, 1995.
Hirsch, Arthur Henry. The Huguenots of Colonial South Carolina. Bowie, Md: Heritage Books, 1988.
McKey, JoAnn Riley. Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts. Bowie, Md: Heritage Books, 1996. Volume 18: 1744-1753. [All 18 volumes are in the Kellenberger Room, this is the newest to the set.]
Robertson, John. On Old Marlborough Road: A Tale About Two Families from Our Past. Upton, Mass: Upton Historical Society, 2006.
Sommer, Barbara W., and Mary Kay Quinlan. The Oral History Manual. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2009.
Sturdevant, Katherine Scott. Organizing & Preserving Your Heirloom Documents. Cincinnati, Ohio: Betterway Books, 2002. [This copy new to the Kellenberger Room, there is also a circulating copy available.]
Wells, Carol. Davidson County, Tennessee, County Court Minutes. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1990. 3 vols. covering 1783-1803.
[Graphic of New Year Celebratory Items Removed]
New Year’s Resolutions - Old Photos
by Maureen A. Taylor
(Adapted from Family Tree Magazine Email Update and related blogs, copyright 2011 F+W Publications Inc)
I'll admit it: I don't make the typical New Year's resolutions. Instead, I make a flexible list of goals for the new year. Posting that list where I can see it keeps me on track and reminds me of what's important. You can do the same with general goals or a few specific projects. Here are a few photo-related ones to keep in mind.
1. Learn your family's story one photo at a time. Select a single image from your box of unidentified pictures, and try to solve its mystery using the photographic method, photographer's imprint, subjects' clothing and genealogical data as clues. Setting this reasonable goal will help you move ahead on your research checklist.
2. Listen to your pictures. You know the old saying: A picture's worth a thousand words. Listen to the stories your photos tell about your family. Pictures of lost loves and family travels can lead to new discoveries about your family tree. Here are a couple of ideas to consider:
3. Carry your pictures with you. Pictures can trigger memories, so carry a file of your unidentified images with you. That way, they'll be accessible the next time you visit a relative or unexpectedly connect with a cousin. You can photocopy your images and carry the copies with you. Or using today's technology, take along digitized versions in your personal digital assistant (PDA).
4. Be preservation-minded. Don't forget to preserve your digital images. Be sure to back them up, and print them using preservation-quality inks and papers. Store all images in an environment with a stable temperature and low humidity.
Don't worry about accomplishing everything on your list. These are just practical ways to make progress on your family history, tell a good story and be mindful of the value of your pictures.
Acquiring Virginia Land by “Headright”
by Charles A. Grymes
[Reproduced from online source: www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/headright.html]
The Europeans who settled first at Jamestown were employees of the Virginia Company, whose stockholders controlled all English claims to land in the colony. Once the English recognized that the colony's value was based on tobacco, and tobacco required large tracts of land, the company began encouraging immigration by promising private control of some land to settlers. Starting in 1618 and lasting through the 17th Century (and technically until cancelled by the General Assembly in 1779), the "headrights" system authorized the grant of 50 acres for every individual brought to Virginia. The colony had an excess of land and a shortage of people, so it was public policy to encourage population growth through immigration and to induce immigration through promises of cheap land. (This policy was not limited to the colonial era - the US passed the Homestead Act in 1864, which provided free land to encourage immigration to the unsettled western lands. The Homestead Law was repealed in 1976, with passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act.)
The headrights system encouraged wealthy individuals to pay to transport indentured servants to Virginia. In theory, the servants would work 5-7 years clearing new land and moving the edge of English settlement further west into the North American continent. The indentured servants did not acquire title to land through their work during their term of service, if someone else had paid for their passage and claimed the headright. At the end of their term of indenture, the servants were released from their obligations of service, given some basic clothing and equipment, and expected to move to the unsettled frontier. They could purchase unimproved land there, "improve" it by cutting down the trees and preparing fields suitable for growing crops such as corn and tobacco. As the forested frontier was converted into farms, indentured servants were transformed into landowners who could provide their children a better opportunity at gaining wealth.
The former servants may have been cash poor, but they could usually buy land on credit from one of the many members of the gentry. The gentry were the wealthy 5% at the top of Virginia's stratified society. Some were "Cavaliers" who had moved to Virginia during the English Civil War, arriving with sufficient wealth to join the gentry immediately. They acquired large tracts of land and speculated on it gaining in value over time. Speculation was successful when someone was able to acquire title to land at a low cost per acre and then to find settlers willing to pay a higher price per acre for it.
The "headright" system did not provide free land to the initial investor. Transportation costs were as high as six pounds per person in the 17th Century, but abuses of the system allowed some people to expand legitimate claims. Both ship captains and the person paying the transportation costs might try to obtain head rights for the people transported to Virginia, or a claim would be filed for more immigrants than actually arrived in Virginia. Virginia planters who imported their labor were awarded 50 acres per slave, just as they were awarded 50 acres per indentured servant. Both large and small landowners imported slaves, or purchased them from ship captains who brought them to the colony for sale. George Menefie was the first to claim a large number of head rights for one shipment of slaves, obtaining 1,150 acres for the 23 slaves he imported along with 37 other (white) servants in 1638. The headright claims for the indentured servants listed the names of the individuals, but the claims for slaves rarely identified individual slaves. In 1699, after European immigrants became harder and harder to attract, the colony began to sell "treasury rights" allowing people to claim 50 acres for 5 shillings. Landowners who surveyed tracts and actually acquired patents (certifying their exclusive ownership of a particular parcel) might sell 100 acres for as much as three pounds. Since there were 10 shillings in a pound, that was a 600% markup.
1. Library of Virginia, "Headrights," VA-NOTES, http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwehave/local/va4headrights.htm (See next page)
2. Croghan, Laura A., "'The Negroes to Serve Forever': The Evolution of Blacks's Life and Labor in Seventeenth Century Virginia," Masters Thesis, William and Mary, 1994, p. 18-20
3. Abernethy, Thomas Perkins, Three Virginia Frontiers, Peter Smith, Gloucester Massachusetts, 1962, p.39, p. 55
by Daphne Gentry
[From VA-NOTES: Reproduced in full with credit to The Library of Virginia]
In order to encourage immigration into the colony, the Virginia Company, meeting in a Quarter Court held on 18 November 1618, passed a body of laws called Orders and Constitutions which came to be considered "the Great Charter of privileges, orders and laws" of the colony. Among these laws was a provision that any person who settled in Virginia or paid for the transportation expenses of another person who settled in Virginia should be entitled to receive fifty acres of land for each immigrant. The right to receive fifty acres per person, or per head, was called a headright. The practice was continued under the royal government of Virginia after the dissolution. The Virginia Company and the Privy Council ordered on 22 July 1634 that patents for headrights be issued.
Although seldom used during the 18th century, the procedure remained in effect until the passage of an act in the session begun in May 1779 which, in adjusting and settling titles to lands, gave a period of twelve months from the end of the legislative session for such rights to be claimed or be considered forfeited. A person who was entitled to a headright usually obtained a certificate of entitlement from a county court and then took the certificate to the office of the secretary of the colony, who issued the headright, or right to patent fifty acres of land. The holder of the headright then had the county surveyor make a survey of the land and then took the survey and the headright back to the capital to obtain a patent for the tract of land. When the patent was issued, the names of the immigrants, or headrights, were often included in the text of the document.
As valuable properties, headrights could be bought and sold. The person who obtained a patent to a tract of land under a headright might not have been the person who immigrated or who paid for the immigration of another person. Headrights were not always claimed immediately after immigration, either; there are instances in which several years elapsed between a person's entry into Virginia and the acquisition of a headright and sometimes even longer between then and the patenting of a tract of land. The headright system was subject to a wide variety of abuses from outright fraud to multiple claims by a merchant and a ship's captain to a headright for the same immigrant passenger. Some prominent merchants and colonial officials received headrights for themselves each time they returned to Virginia from abroad. As a result of the abuses and of the transferable nature of the headrights, the system, which may have been intended initially to promote settlement and ownership of small plots of land by numerous immigrants, resulted in the accumulation of large tracts of land by a small number of merchants, shippers, and early land speculators.
The presence of a name as a headright in a land patent, then, establishes that a person of a certain name had entered Virginia prior to the date of the patent; but it does not prove when the person immigrated or who was initially entitled to the headright. For extended analyses of Virginia land policies, see Fairfax Harrison Virginia Land Grants (New York, 1925, Richmond, 1979); Robert A. Stewart's introduction in volume one of Nell M. Nugent's Cavaliers and Pioneers (Richmond, 1934); Daphne Gentry's introduction in volume four of Dennis Hudgins' Cavaliers and Pioneers (Richmond, 1995); and the introduction to the Virginia Land Office Inventory, first published by the Library of Virginia in 1973. Headrights (VA-NOTES) Page 2 of an online series on Research in Virginia Documents.
Prepared by Daphne Gentry, Publications and Education Services Division, Library of Virginia.
Copyright by The Library of Virginia; this note may be reproduced in full if proper credit is given and no changes are made.
Library of Virginia, 800 East Broad Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219-8000
Phone: 804.692.3500 • TTY /TDD: 804.692.3976
Regular Hours: Monday - Saturday 9:00 AM until 5:00 PM - check News & Events for updates or closings
Acts of Genealogical Kindness
by Carolyn McCulley
An inquiry recently arrived in our Society’s mailbox from Dr. Kenneth Cadenhead, Professor Emeritus, Auburn University. It resulted in a chain of events that epitomize the phrase “acts of genealogical kindness.”
Professor Cadenhead was seeking local research assistance from our Society to obtain information in Craven County records about the death of a possible relative or ancestor of his. The death occurred during the 18th century in a fire on a vessel in the port of New Bern.
After reviewing the inquiry, Lois Gregory offered it to her husband Bob, knowing his interest in both sailing and history. Bob began researching online and in the Kellenberger Room. As a result of his research, Bob was able to provide information to Dr. Cadenhead about the boat and the circumstances of the fire. The vessel was a shallow-draft commercial sailing craft engaged in the coastal trade of tar, pitch and turpentine, usually called “naval stores,” which were highly flammable.
The Coroner’s report of 1772 revealed that the fire was apparently caused by a candle. This report did not provide any confirmation that the person who died in the boat fire was related to Dr. Cadenhead. However, Bob did find that there was a person with the Cadenhead surname living in Craven County around 1900. Bob and Lois Gregory corresponded with Dr. Cadenhead by email about the research. Victor Jones also was involved, and he recalled that Dr. Cadenhead had been in contact a number of years ago with the Kellenberger Room to obtain information for a book he was writing about the Cadenhead family.
The most recent development is that Professor Cadenhead has graciously and generously offered to donate a copy of his book, “Southern Cadenheads” to the Kellenberger Room, an offer happily accepted by Victor Jones and the library. So, the next time you receive a request for research help from another genealogist, be sure to assist if possible – you never know how many other acts of genealogical kindness may follow!
Keys to Locating Your Overseas Ancestors' Hometowns
(Reprinted with permission from Family Tree Magazine Email Update and related blogs, copyright 2011 F+W Publications Inc.)
This tip comes from Family Tree University’s Immigration Master Class:
Before you begin looking for specific places in your ancestral homeland, get acquainted with the country's key geographic divisions, such as borough, city, county, hamlet or parish. This will help you locate and interpret the records you'll use because such administrative districts served as jurisdictions for record-keeping.
You can get a quick crash course in your ancestral country's administrative divisions using tools such as:
It’s That Time of Year: Organize Your Research!
by Carolyn L. Barkley
(Adapted from Genealogical Publishing Company’s online email newsletter and blogs)
It’s once again that time of year when we contemplate our plan for a new year of genealogical work. In doing, so however, we may be aware that we may not have met some of our resolutions to be better organized researchers – you know – the ones you made last year this time! If so, not to worry; we can’t receive too many reminders about how important it is to be organized in our research activities.
Did you, like me, make a New Year’s resolution last January to organize your research files and the piles or related papers decorating your work area floor, or perhaps your dining room table? How successful were you in keeping your promises to yourself? Did you actually buy the office supplies, only to leave them sitting in the original store bags you regularly step over and around? Have you piled more research paperwork on top of them? Are they still in the trunk of your car?
I know I have made similar resolutions every year for many years, and the piles are still there under the eaves calling to me in the wee hours of the morning – but I don’t have any supplies in the trunk of the car – PROGRESS! I have done some filing and organizing in energetic moments during the year (probably when I had some deadline I was ignoring), so I am feeling virtuous enough to share the following tips with you (again!) as you also begin to fulfill your 2010 (let’s not even think about the ones from 2009) resolutions - in 2011!
* * * * * * * * * *
Using Reverse Genealogy to Overcome Brick Walls
by Diane Haddad
(Reprinted with permission from Family Tree Magazine Email Update and related blogs, copyright 2010 F+W Publications Inc.)
It’s easy to get tunnel vision when researching an ancestor. But your research is best served by considering your focus ancestor as part of a community. (Emily Anne Croom, author of the best selling genealogy guide Unpuzzling Your Past, calls this "cluster genealogy.")
Not only is your great-grandfather a member of his nuclear family, but also of an extended family. When you do reverse genealogy, you go a step beyond him and then research forward, broadening your search to his relatives and even friends. Any of the folks in your ancestor’s “cluster” could have provided him with housing, worked for him, asked him to witness a document, or attended his funeral.
Here’s how this can work in a real-life research situation:
Several years ago, I was trying to locate my great-grandfather in the 1880 US census on microfilm, without success. I found his parents and his siblings who were still living at home. Since Great-Grandpa was 17 at the time, I expected to find him there, too. I searched for his future wife, thinking perhaps they married younger than I thought. But, she was living with her parents. Great-Grandpa was nowhere to be found.
In an attempt to find him, I traced my great-grandfather’s father back to the 1860 census, where he was listed in the household with his parents. I noted everyone in the household. Then I systematically researched forward, locating each sibling in the 1870 and 1880 censuses.
Sure enough, in 1880, I found my then-17-year-old great-grandfather living with his uncle (his father’s brother) in a neighboring town. Because of a variation in his name spelling, I probably never would have found him in online censuses.
MEDLEY: News, Tips & Web Sites
(Some items reprinted with permission from Family Tree Magazine Email Update and related blogs, copyright 2010-2011 F+W Publications Inc. or from Genealogical Publishing Company’s online email newsletter and related blogs)
Interesting Web Sites
Here are several helpful websites for researching ancestors from Massachusetts:
Photos & information about Cape Cod Gravestones - www.capecodgravestones.com
Falmouth Genealogical Society’s Cemetery Transcription Project - www.falgen.org/cem
Massachusetts Cemetery Directory includes maps with county names and the towns in them –
South Middlesex County Registry of Deeds –
Norfolk County Registry of Deeds -
Massachusetts’ Ethnic Mosaic with an interactive map of ethnic groups in the state –
News from the World of Genealogy
FamilySearch has added records to its overhauled website, including the Social Security Death Index, US state censuses and vital records, and records from Canada, Spain and Venezuela. To see the full list, go to: https://news.familysearch.org/node/1049.
To search the collections: www.familysearch.org
FamilySearch also has started several new volunteer indexing projects, including US censuses, tax and vital records, and its first project in Polish records. See the FamilySearch blog for details on each project and a contact link if you can volunteer: https://blog.familysearch.org/node/1059.
Ancestry.com has announced that during 2010, over one billion new records were added, including such United States data as a 1950 Census Substitute and naturalization records from 14 states. New military records span 150 years and include Revolutionary War pension and bounty-land applications, and World War II prisoner of war records. The US Census records have been enhanced with crisper images, new search fields for the censuses from 1790-1840, and better indexes for the 1910 and 1920 census records.
From outside the US, major collections added include the England and Wales National Probate Calendar (1861-1941), the Australia National Birth, Marriage and Death Index (1788-1985) and the Nova Scotia vital records (1765-1957).
During 2011, new records to be added include more naturalization records, an improved 1930 census, more Boston, New York & Philadelphia passenger lists, additional high school and college yearbooks (late 1800s-1900s), Navy muster rolls (1939-1948), Confederate pension applications (late 1800s-early 1900s), and an index to early Pennsylvania land warrants (late 1800s-early 1900s).
“Who Do You Think You Are?”
This celebrity-genealogy TV series on NBC will resume on Friday evenings beginning February 4. You’ll be able to watch country music star Tim McGraw; pop singer Lionel Richie; comedian and activist Rosie O’Donnell; and actors Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Steve Buscemi, Vanessa Williams and Kim Cattrall trace their roots.
The series is produced by Lisa Kudrow and Dan Bucatinsky of Is or Isn’t Entertainment.
A press release promises that "From the trenches of the Civil War to the shores of the Caribbean, and from the valleys of Virginia to the island nations of Australia and Ireland, “Who Do You Think You Are?” will reveal the fabric of humanity through everyone’s place in history."
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